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Al Masmak fortress is a historical landmark located in the heart of Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The fortress, which dates back to the 19th century, played a significant role in the unification of the Saudi Kingdom.

The fortress was constructed in 1865 during the reign of Abdullah bin Faisal Al Saud, the father of the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, King Abdulaziz. The fortress is made of clay and mud-brick, and it has a square shape with four watchtowers at its corners. The walls of the fortress are about 15 meters high and two meters thick.

In 1902, King Abdulaziz, also known as Ibn Saud, and his small group of warriors attacked and captured the fortress from the Ottoman Turks. The capture of the fortress marked a significant milestone in the establishment of the Saudi state. The fortress was later used as a museum to display the history and culture of the Saudi Arabian people.

Today, the Al Masmak fortress is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Riyadh. Visitors can explore the fortress and learn about the rich history of Saudi Arabia. The museum inside the fortress houses a collection of traditional weapons, armor, and artifacts that offer a glimpse into the life and culture of the Saudi Arabian people.